Experiencing menstruation is natural. It varies from person to person. How can you determine if your menstrual cycle is problematic?
Many girls and women face discomfort during periods. Symptoms include cramps, fatigue, and heavy bleeding.
Severe pain or excessive bleeding may indicate underlying issues. Discussing menstrual problems can be awkward.
Dr. Lisa Halvorson urges open conversation. She emphasizes the importance of recognizing menstrual health.
Engage with your healthcare provider. Explore potential treatment options together.
For most women, menstrual cycles span 21 to 35 days, for teenagers, up to 45 days. Bleeding typically lasts three to seven days. It’s crucial to understand one’s own menstrual patterns.
Common irregularities include absent periods, irregular menstruation, excessive or insufficient bleeding, and painful cramps.
Various factors contribute, such as scarring, hormonal imbalances, diseases, or medications.
Uterine fibroids and endometriosis are prevalent causes. Fibroids are benign growths in or outside the uterine wall. Endometriosis involves uterine tissue growing outside the uterus.
Endometriosis affects fertility, with Dr. Halvorson stating it accounts for infertility in one-third of women.
Both conditions can run in families, leading to misconceptions about pain and bleeding.
Dr. Ayman Al-Hendy emphasizes the need to recognize available treatments to improve health and quality of life.
Differentiating between menstrual issues challenges healthcare providers. Hormonal changes are detectable via blood tests. Fibroids are identifiable through ultrasound imaging.
However, diagnosing endometriosis is complex. Dr. Stacey Missmer explains its invisibility on imaging tests and lack of blood tests for detection. Surgery remains the definitive diagnostic method, involving abdominal cavity examination through a small incision.
This diagnostic process can lead to delays due to the careful consideration required for surgery. Missmer notes doctors may prescribe medications initially for suspected endometriosis to gauge effectiveness.
Various medications employed to address issues like fibroids, endometriosis, and menstrual disorders function by modifying specific hormones. Birth control pills and other pharmaceuticals can inhibit these hormones.
These treatments can be effective for many women, as Dr. Lisa Halvorson notes. However, she also points out, “They can hinder a woman’s ability to conceive,” which may limit the duration of use for some.
Researchers have devised alternative methods to manage fibroids that don’t necessitate extensive surgical procedures, and these approaches often yield positive results. Nonetheless, there is the possibility of fibroid recurrence.
For individuals with endometriosis, surgical interventions aimed at removing adherent tissue can provide relief from pain for some. Nevertheless, not all women experience relief from this type of surgery.
In cases where medications or less invasive treatments fail to provide relief, a hysterectomy may be considered as an option. This surgical procedure involves the removal of the uterus and sometimes the ovaries, rendering the individual incapable of conceiving.
Dr. Ayman Al-Hendy emphasizes that hysterectomies were once more prevalent but have become less common due to the availability of alternative treatments. He explains, “We now tend to resort to it only when other options have proven ineffective.” However, it’s important to note that hysterectomy does not guarantee a complete resolution of chronic pelvic pain for everyone.
NIH-funded researchers are actively engaged in the pursuit of innovative methods to detect, manage, and prevent menstrual issues.
Dr. Lisa Halvorson underscores the necessity for improved, noninvasive means of diagnosing endometriosis. She points out, “We require more effective methods that don’t involve surgery.”
Dr. Stacey Missmer is spearheading efforts to develop a test for endometriosis. She elaborates, “Many scientists are currently investigating the potential of utilizing blood, urine, and saliva. We aim to identify a distinctive signal that can ascertain whether a woman has endometriosis, eliminating the need for surgical intervention.”
Regarding both fibroids and endometriosis, Dr. Halvorson emphasizes the urgency for nonhormonal treatments. She notes that such treatments are essential because “some women cannot tolerate the side effects of hormonal therapies,” which are also unsuitable for women desiring pregnancy.
Dr. Ayman Al-Hendy’s research delves into potential novel approaches for managing fibroids. His laboratory has uncovered evidence suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to fibroid growth. His team is presently working on developing new medications based on vitamin D and intends to assess their effectiveness in reducing fibroid size.
Researchers also hold hope that a deeper understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for menstrual problems can pave the way for early intervention and prevention, as explained by Al-Hendy.
For the time being, Al-Hendy highlights the significant benefits of women being aware of the prevalence of these disorders and the treatment options already available.
Missmer emphasizes the importance of open communication. She asserts, “If you experienced pain every time you moved your elbow, you wouldn’t hesitate to consult a doctor and discuss it. Similarly, if you’re experiencing pain during your period, there’s no reason why it shouldn’t be addressed.”